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In July 2015, WebAIM conducted a survey of preferences of screen reader users. We received 2515 valid responses to this survey, our highest thus far. This was a follow-up survey tothe original WebAIM Screen Reader User Survey of January 2009and the follow-up surveys fromOctober 2009,December 2010,May 2012, andJanuary 2014。进行了额外的调查October 2017

A few disclaimers and notices:

  • Totals may not equal 100% due to rounding.
  • Total responses (n) for each question may not equal 2515 due to respondents not answering that particular question.
  • The sample was not controlled and may not represent all screen reader users.
  • We hope to conduct additional surveys of this nature again in the future. If you have recommendations or questions you would like us to ask, pleasecontact us




响应 受访者# % of Respondents
North America 1680. 69.4%
Europe/UK 422 17.4%
Australia and Oceania 131 5.4%
Asia 103 4.3%
南美 41 1.7%
Africa/Middle East 35 1.4%
中美洲和加勒比海 9 0.4%



响应 受访者# % of Respondents
Yes 2307 93.1%
No 171 6.9%

Some have inquired about why our data includes both users with and without disabilities. In general, we've found survey question responses to be very similar across these two groups. Any notable differences are detailed below to help us determine differences in practices or perceptions between the disability and the developer communities.

Disability Types

Disability Types

Which of the following disabilities do you have?
响应 受访者# % of Respondents
失明 1610. 64%
Low Vision/Visually-Impaired 973 38.7%
认知 44 1.7%
耳聋/难以听力 157 6.2%
Motor 60 2.4%
Other 65 2.6%




响应 受访者# % of Respondents
Advanced 1232 50%
中间 1029 42%
Beginner 189. 8%

Screen reader proficiency reported on this survey is notably lower than previous surveys (50% indicate advanced proficiency compared to 58% in 2014). We believe this shift is largely due to the broader number of survey respondents. In short, the survey was distributed more widely and to less proficient users. This likely indicates that the responses to this survey are more reflective of the broader screen reader community.

那些使用屏幕读者因残疾人报告的人来说,综合读者读者 - 52%的残疾人认为他们的熟练程度是“先进”,而在没有残疾的28%。


Pie Chart of Internet Proficiency

Please rate your proficiency using the Internet
响应 受访者# % of Respondents
Advanced 1479 60%
中间 907 37%
Beginner 76. 3%

Internet proficiency has generally remained similar across all surveys. Those without disabilities rate themselves as more proficient than those with disabilities.

Level of Employment

Pie Chart of Level of Employment

请注明你当前的列弗el of employment
响应 受访者# % of Respondents
全职员工 986 40.7%
Employed part time 338 13.9%
Not employed 1101 45.4%

While retirement or respondents too young to work were not considered in these numbers, these results certainly reflect the significant unemployment and under-employment of individuals with disabilities. However, the number or respondents who reported a disability that are unemployed (47.3%) is notably lower than the 62.3% unemployment rate for working age adults with significant vision loss据NFB在2012年报告

73.4% of those without disabilities were employed full time compared to only 38.3% of those with disabilities. Respondents with higher screen reader and internet proficiency were more likely to be employed.



Which of the following is your primary desktop/laptop screen reader?
屏幕阅读器 受访者# % of Respondents
JAWS 743 30.2%
ZoomText. 545 22.2%
Window-Eyes 508 20.7%
NVDA 360 14.6%
漫画 188. 7.6%
System Access or System Access To Go 36 1.5%
铬Vox 8 0.3%
Other 72. 2.9%


Chart of primary screen reader usage showing decreases in JAWS, etc. and significant increases in ZoomText and Window-Eyes.

ZoomText.(1.3% to 22.2%) and Window-Eyes (6.7% to 20.7%) both saw very significant increases in usage since January 2014. This reflects a very substantial decrease in JAWS usage since January 2014 - from 50% to 30%. JAWS has seen a continual decrease in usage over time from a high of 74% on our first survey in 2009. VoiceOver and NVDA have also seen slight decreases in usage. Much of the Window-Eyes increase can likely be attributed to its free availability to Microsoft Office users. The ZoomText increase is both notable and surprising. Is is used as a primary screen reader as often as both NVDA (14.6%) and VoiceOver (7.6%) combined. While they were not listed as response options for simplicity's sake, the survey comments indicate that Orca, SuperNova, and Speakup (among others) were common "Other" screen readers.

For respondents that report blindness, 38.9% use JAWS, 26.5% use Window-Eyes, 16.9% use NVDA, 8.7% use VoiceOver, and 4.6% use ZoomText. For respondents that report having low vision, 53.5% use ZoomText, 16.5% use JAWS, 12.2% use Window-Eyes, 8.7% use NVDA, and 4.6% use VoiceOver. ZoomText was also more commonly used by users with auditory, motor, and cognitive disabilities than by users with blindness.



Read additional commentary on the increase of ZoomText and Window-Eyes on our blog at//www.kanehsu.com/blog/resugence-of-zoomtext-and-window-eyes/。我们认为这些数据表明该领域的重大班次。


Chart showing browser usage

浏览器 受访者# % of Respondents
Internet Explorer 10+ 852 34.9%
Firefox 735 30.1%
Internet Explorer 6, 7, or 8 313 12.8%
Safari 192. 7.9%
155 6.3%
Internet Explorer 9 142 5.8%
其他 54 2.2%

Internet Explorer (all versions) usage decreased to 53.5% from 58.7% in January 2014 and 67.5% in May 2012, but it is still the most commonly used browser. This is a significantly higher usage of IE than that of the general population (most statistics place it around 10%). 12.8% of respondents still use IE6, 7, or 8 - notable due to the lack of ARIA support in these browser versions. Chrome usage at 6.4% (up from 2.8% in January 2014) is just a fraction of the overall usage of Chrome in the general population. Firefox usage was up in the last 18 months (24.2% to 30.1%) and Safari usage was down (10.0% to 7.9%).


If you don't consider versions of Internet Explorer, the most common combinations are:

  1. JAWS with IE - 23.9%
  2. Window-Eyes with IE - 14.9%
  3. NVDA with Firefox - 11.4%
  4. ZoomText.with IE - 9.8%
  5. ZoomText.with Firefox - 6.9%
  6. 带野生动物园的声道- 6.8%
Most common screen reader and browser combinations
浏览器 受访者# % of Respondents
JAWS with Internet Explorer 10+ 401 16.6%
NVDA with Firefox 275 11.4%
与Internet Explorer 10+的窗口眼睛 218 9.0%
ZoomText.with Firefox 166 6.9%
带野生动物园的声道 165 6.8%
ZoomText.with Internet Explorer 10+ 139 5.8%
JAWS with Firefox 137 5.7%
JAWS with Internet Explorer 6, 7, or 8 116 4.8%
窗口眼睛与firefox 113 4.7%
Window-Eyes with Internet Explorer 6, 7, or 8 108 4.5%
ZoomText.with Chrome 95. 3.9%
Other combinations 477 19.8%

There aremanycombinations that are used. This highlights the need for increased screen reader and browser support for web standards because of the great difficulty for web authors to test in all common screen reader / browser combinations.

屏幕阅读器s Commonly Used

屏幕阅读器s Commonly Used

屏幕阅读器 受访者# % of Respondents
JAWS 1098 43.7%
NVDA 1040 41.4%
漫画 778 30.9%
Window-Eyes 745 29.6%
ZoomText. 691 27.5%
System Access or System Access To Go 173 6.9%
铬Vox 71. 2.8%
Other 163 6.5%

JAWS usage is down from 63.9% in January 2014 to 43.7% (from a high of 74% in January 2009). Window-Eyes usage doubled and ZoomText usage increased over 5 times in the last 18 months! System Access (26.2% to 6.9%), NVDA (from 51.2% to 41.4%), VoiceOver (from 36.8% to 30.9%), and ChromeVox (4.8% to 2.8%) all saw notable decreases in usage in that time.



53%的受访者使用多个桌面/笔记本电脑读者。这是2014年1月的62%.25%使用三个或更多,9%使用四个或更多不同的屏幕阅读器。66%的VoiceOver用户通常使用额外的屏幕读者 - 注意,因为其他屏幕读者几乎完全在Windows上运行。另一方面,Window-Eyes(37%)和ZoomText(仅22%)用户不太可能使用额外的屏幕阅读器。这种差异解释了为什么ZoomText用作一个primary screen readerby 22.2% of respondents, but is常用不常用于NVDA和VoiceOver。


Pie chart showing respondent operating systems

响应 受访者# % of Respondents
Windows 2140 85.3%
Apple 171 6.8%
iOS 134 5.3%
Android 33 1.3%
Linux 26 1.0%
Nokia 4 .2%

Operating system data above was detected from the system used to complete the survey. Windows usage is up slightly (82.8% to 85.3%) since January 2014, while Apple usage is down slightly (8.5% to 6.8%). iOS and Android usage both increased slightly. Of the iOS devices, 89 were using iPhones, 43 were using iPads, and 2 were using iPods. Respondents without disabilities were more likely to use Apple, Android, and iOS than those without disabilities who were more likely to use Windows. Those with beginner screen reader proficiency were much more likely to be using a mobile device than those with advanced proficiency.

Home vs. Work

Pie chart showing those who use a different screen reader at work than at home.

响应 受访者# % of Respondents
Yes 1229 75.3%
No 403 24.7%




Has your primary screen reader been updated in the last year?
响应 受访者# % of Respondents
Yes 1998年 82.1%
No 435 17.9%

The percentage of respondents updating in the previous year is largely unchanged from previous surveys. It's important to note that many users may still be using screen readers that are several years old.

NVDA的主要用户(96.1%),VoiceOver(91.7%)和Window-Eyes(91.6%)最有可能在上一年更新 - 可以理解,因为这些更新通常是免费的。80.1%的jaws用户,只有65.3%的zoomtext用户在上一年中更新。



How did you obtain your primary screen reader?
响应 受访者# % of Respondents
I bought it myself 95.2 39.0%
It was received through a government program 474 19.4%
I downloaded it free of charge from the Internet 425 17.4%
It was provided to me by my employer 330 13.5%
Other 176 7.2%
I'm using a pirated version of a commercial screen reader 34 1.4%
It was provided to me by my school 28 1.1%
I'm using a trial version of a commercial screen reader 22 0.9%

More respondents are purchasing their own screen readers now (39.0%) than inOctober 2009(34.7%). 40.3% of those with disabilities purchased their own screen reader as compared to only 17% of those without disabilities.

Mobile Screen Readers

Mobile Screen Reader Usage


响应 受访者# % of Respondents
Yes 1683. 69.2%
No 750 30.8%

The percentage of respondents using a mobile screen reader is down to 69.2% from 82% in January 2014. This decrease is almost at levels reported in December 2010.


这一减少可能主要由调查的更广泛传播到更多样化,更少的技术熟练的用户基础 - 特别是具有低视力的用户。83.7%拥有先进的屏幕读者熟练程度的用户使用移动屏幕阅读器,只有41.2%的初级熟练程度。80.2%的盲声受访者使用移动设备与仅52.8%的低视觉用户相比。如果没有残疾的人也可能不太可能使用移动屏幕读者,并且较少的受访者报告的残疾人比往年。


Chart showing mobile platform usage

Which of the following is your primary mobile platform?
移动平台 受访者# % of Respondents
Apple iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch 1443. 69.6%
Android 430 20.8%
Nokia 79. 3.8%
Other 120 5.8%

iOS使用继续增加。Android使用also increased though at a slower pace than previous years. Nokia usage is now quite rare. Windows Phone, Blackberry, Palm, and other platforms combined represent less than 6% of usage.

Chart of mobile platform usage.

iOS device usage among screen reader users is notably higher than for the standard population, whereas Android usage is much, much lower. Those with more advanced screen reader and internet proficiency were much more likely to use iOS over Android or Nokia. Those without disabilities were more than twice as likely to use Android as those with disabilities.

Mobile Screen Readers Used

Mobile Screen Readers Commonly Used

Which of the following mobile screen readers do you commonly use? (Choose all that apply)
移动平台 受访者# % of Respondents
漫画 1426. 56.7%
TalkBack for Android 448 17.8%
Nuance Talks 114 4.5%
Android的移动可访问性 76. 3.0%
Mobile Speak 54 2.1%
Other 62 9.1%

漫画usage decreased from 60.5% in January 2014. 13% of respondents commonly use multiple mobile screen readers.

The following chart show mobile screen reader usage over time.

Chart of mobile screen reader usage.


Chart showing web accessibility progress

Which of the following best describes your feelings regarding the accessibility of web content over the previous year?
响应 受访者# % of Respondents
Web content has become more accessible 928 38.7%
Web内容可访问性没有改变 902. 37.7%
Web内容变得不那么容易万博体育官网网址 565 23.6%


Reasons for Inaccessibility

Chart showing reasons for inaccessibility

Which of the following do you think is the primary reason that many developers do not create accessible web sites?
响应 受访者# % of Respondents
Lack of awareness of web accessibility 1031 43.0%
Lack of web accessibility skills or knowledge 638 26.6%
Fear that accessibility will hinder the look, feel, or functionality 487 20.3%
缺乏预算或资源,使其可达万博体育官网网址万博亚洲体育官网 242 10.1%


Social Media Accessibility

Chart showing social media accessibility

一般来说,如何可以访问社交媒体网万博体育官网网址络sites to you?
响应 受访者# % of Respondents
Very Accessible 289 12.7%
Somewhat Accessible 1080 47.6%
有些无法进入万博体育官网网址 370 16.3%
Very Inaccessible 289 12.7%
I Don't Know 367 16.2%

与来自的反应相比May 2012 survey, respondents are a bit more positive about the accessibility of social media sites.


Chart showing usage of landmarks/regions

How often do you navigate by landmarks/regions in your screen reader?
响应 受访者# % of Respondents
Whenever they are present 515 22.1%
Often 385 16.5%
有时 599 25.7%
Seldom 416 17.9%
Never 414 17.8%

Compared to previous surveys, the knowledge and use of landmarks has decreased slightly. 45.4% of JAWS users, 43.1% of NVDA users, 37.1% of Window-Eyes users, and 36.9% of VoiceOver users always or often use landmarks. However, only 28% of ZoomText users do the same - not unexpected seeing as ZoomText did not support landmark navigation until just a few weeks before this survey concluded. 44.2% of respondents with advanced screen reader proficiency always or often use landmarks compared to 29.4% of those with beginner screen reader proficiency.

Complex Images

Some images, such as charts, diagrams, or comic strips, are too complex to describe in only a few words. If a long, detailed description of these images is available, how would you prefer to have it presented to you?
响应 受访者# % of Respondents
As optional text, available on the same page but only if I request it by following a link 1021 43.5%
As text on the web page, immediately following the image 605 25.8%
As a lengthy description (alt text) on the image itself 355 15.1%
On a separate page, available by following a link 161 6.9%
在一个单独的页面上,由我的屏幕阅读器宣布 137 5.8%
Ignored entirely by my screen reader 68 2.9%

This is a follow-up to a question asked on theOctober 2009 survey。最优选的长描述方法是在同一页面上可根据要求提供的可选文本。有趣的是,这可能是最不常见的方法,也可能是使用今天可用的任何标准,语义标记本身不受用户代理的唯一不支持的方法。选择替代品在单独的页面上,但屏幕阅读器宣布的选项,具有最常见的图像的当前行为Longdesc.属性(并且很可能aria-describedatattribute), was a very unpopular option, second only to being ignored entirely.

Multiple Languages

Pie chart showing multiple language settings

响应 受访者# % of Respondents
Yes 619 25.6%
No 1803 74.4%

Not surprisingly, respondents from Asia (73.0%), South America (50.0%), Europe (49.3%), and Africa or Middle East (41.2%) were much more likely to have multi-lingual settings than those from North America (16.5%) or Australia (13.4%). NVDA (40.6%) and VoiceOver (36.4%) users were much more likely to have multi-lingual settings than JAWS (27.6%), Window-Eyes (18.3%), or ZoomText (15.3%) users.

Acrobat / PDF.

Chart showing PDF file difficulty.

Acrobat / PDF.files are...
响应 受访者# % of Respondents
Very easy 312 12.8%
Somewhat easy 847 34.7%
有点难 836 34.2%
Very difficult 320 13.1%
I Don't Know 128 5.2%

While we realize this is not a well worded question, we were interested to see changes since this question was asked on theDecember 2008 survey。There has not been a significant change in perception - either for better or worse - of PDF ease or difficulty in the last 6.5 years.