WebAIM - Web Accessibility In Mind

8-Step Implementation Model
Step 3: Organize a Web Accessibility Committee

"Lone Rangers" Don't Fare Well

Photograph of the lone ranger on his horseIs it possible for one person at a large organization to implement a full-blown accessibility initiative? It is possible, yes, but this sort of "lone ranger" approach can backfire if other people at the organization do not share the vision or commitment that this one person has. Other people may resent the constant badgering of this individual, or, just as likely, this one person may tire of always trying to drag everyone else along for the ride.

Committees can be slower than the "lone ranger" approach, but their effect is usually longer-lasting because committee members have invested time and effort in the process, coming to agreement on important issues.

The key is to form a committee that is representative of all of the stakeholders in an organization, and to ensure that each committee member performs the tasks that correspond to them.

识别利益相关者

Involving key groups

Once the leadership at your organization supports the importance of web accessibility, a group should be formed to draft accessibility policies and to see the process through its implementation. It is vital that this group be comprised of other key individuals at your organization. Those chosen should be respected in their individual fields and have the ability to influence change with their colleagues. They must also be able to commit the time necessary to see the process through. In some instances this could be a substantial 2-year commitment.

So, who should be part of this process? It is important to remember that every organization will need to approach this process in a slightly different way, thus membership of this committee should reflect these differences. It is important that this committee be constructed in such a way that all members will work constructively toward the goal of helping to create a fully accessible web for their organization. Please remember that these individuals will report back to the larger groups from which they came. As such, it would be helpful to the process if they were respected within their own groups. Representation and support by all parties is essential if implementation is to be widely accepted. The implementation of web accessibility at your organization will be much easier and when all of these pieces fit together.

Questions to Ask Yourself

Take a moment now to select the members of this committee for your organization.Some questions you might take into consideration as you move through the selection process include the following:

  • 选定的成员是否在其影响领域备受尊重?
  • Will others listen to them?
  • 选中的成员会有帮助吗the committee address the concerns of their peers?
  • Will the selected member devote the time and energy necessary?

Take a moment to write out a list of the persons you would consider viable choices for a web accessibility committee at your institution. When you have compiled this list, consider the following questions:

  • 您完成此过程时您考虑了哪些问题?
  • 在你的决策过程中,哪些问题似乎是关键?

Postsecondary education as an example

Although this example is specific to postsecondary education, there are parallels to other types of organizations. Postsecondary institutions will want to involve the administration, faculty, students, the Section 504/ADA coordinator, and the webmaster. Businesses will want to involve upper management, marketing, customer service, the legal team, customers, programmers and developers. Government entities will want to involve agency or department leadership, individuals from the various focus areas of the entity, and the developers. Other types of organizations will need to adapt the recommendations presented here to fit their organizational structure and needs.

在近期机构中,通常至少有5组应该参加这一过程的利益攸关方。这些组包括:管理,教师,第504节和ADA协调员,网络设计师和残疾学生。来自这些组中的每组的至少一个成员应参与Web可访问性委员会,尽管某些群体有多个代表可能有意义。

重要的是,委员会所有成员都了解本委员会内的角色和责任。以下角色描述可能反映您自己委员会将解决的需求和疑虑。在阅读每个角色时,请考虑谁将填补相应的角色。他们是否能够成功开展这些职责?您可以在各自的责任中向委员会提供哪些帮助和支持?

Roles of the administration:

  • Oversee entire web accessibility process
  • Break down the University into manageable chunks by forming a committee consisting of key players in the University: faculty, designers, students, Disability Service Center (DSC) coordinators and legal representation
  • Oversee all administrative details of the committee including meetings, discussion, delegation, parley between committee members, holding members accountable for their responsibilities and meeting projected completion dates

教师的角色:

  • 在委员会讨论和规划中代表教员的关注点
  • Carry committee decisions to faculty and gather their support and cooperation in the process of web accessibility

Roles of the Section 504/ADA Coordinator and Students with Disabilities:

  • Represent the student perspective and promote an understanding of their personal frustrations and concerns with the web for other committee members
  • If necessary, explain in detail, assistive technologies which interface with the web and the problems which must be addressed in their effective use
  • Assure that accessibility issues across the spectrum of disabilities are addressed appropriately

WebMaster / Designer的角色:

  • Represent institutional designers by mediating their concerns, questions and frustrations with the accessibility committee
  • 帮助机构设计师更好地了解Web可访问性问题;包括概念以及有效编码和设计的具体技术和策略
  • Represent institutional designers in overseeing, creating or choosing web accessibility training methods and resources
  • Carry out all delegated responsibilities of the web accessibility committee which may include; cataloging institutional web sites, conducting baseline studies of these sites, and learning the ins and outs of validators for purposes of evaluation, participating in monitoring of progress and accountability of institutional designers

Identifying Challenges

One of the first tasks of the committee will be to identify potential obstacles or challenges to maintaining a consistent accessible web presence. This task may be all too easy in some organizations, but here is a list of challenges that we've come up with, along with a few potential solutions.

Decentralization

一些大型组织如此分散,即难以维持对组织所有人和部分的任何一种控制。职业教育机构是一个典范的例子。大学经常拥有一个主要的网站,然后是其他几个子站点,例如不同大学的网站,为学校报纸,为学生注册等。这些不同的子站点是由中央人员或团队设计和控制的这些不同的子站点,尽管一些机构有一系列必须遵守“外观和感受”的标准。在犹他州州立大学,只是为了了解校园上有多少Web服务器。任何计算机都可以是Web服务器,许多计算机都是。有时教师会员为他们的课程创建自己的半自动Web服务器。大学项目和拨款计划通常有自己的网站,甚至可能甚至无法托管大学服务器。

潜在的解决方案:

  • 创建组织重要网站的所有Web开发人员的电子邮件列表。在教育设置中,您可能包含此列表中的教师,但教职员工的单独列表也可能是合适的。
  • 从头网站管理员发送每月电子邮件时事通知到所有其他网站管理员。包括如何使网站更容易获得的提示以及其他开发技巧。万博体育官网网址
  • Hold monthly or quarterly meetings of all web development personnel across the organization, to inform them of what's happening in different areas of the organization, in terms of the web.
  • 创建一个可访问性监控团队,定期检查不同站点以获取可访问性。您可以通过表示将从组织的服务器中删除所有不合规的站点来执行合规性(这是一个可能最终损害组织的恶劣方法,而不是那些不符合符合的人,但这种方法可能会为某些人工作组织)

Lack of training

Many web developers are unaware of disability access issues at all. Even if they know that it is an issue, they may not know any of the techniques on how to design for accessibility. This is one of the biggest initial barriers.

潜在的解决方案:

  • Designate a person or a group of people as web accessibility trainers. These people may already be a part of the organization, or it may be necessary to hire them.
  • 持有季度研讨会的不同方面的无障碍网页设计。万博体育官网网址
  • Buy books that teach web accessibility.
  • Encourage or require individuals to participate in training events such as theWebAIM Web Accessibility Trainings

Non-professionals as web developers

K-12 schools often have teachers, secretaries, or students who are novice web developers post content to their web sites. Sometimes these individuals make the effort to learn the web skills necessary to prepare high quality web content, but more often than not, they never learn the technical aspects of web development, either because it does not interest them, or because they do not have the aptitude for it.

潜在的解决方案:

  • 在网页设计的各个方面都培训缺乏经验的开发人员,包括可访问的网页设计万博体育官网网址
  • Consider making web development a higher priority--hire a professional web developer
  • 为那些开发Web内容的人提供书籍或其他培训材料。

Apathy

在教育和政府领域之外,法律授权有点模糊,有些企业可能觉得没有必要额外努力使他们的网页内容可访问,因为没有明确的后果。万博体育官网网址即使在教育和政府中,许多人也没有看到残疾人访问作为一个重要问题。他们可能会认为它不适用于它们,或者它没有意义融入其中有利于他们网站的游客的少数人。

潜在的解决方案:

  • Have an individual with a disability give a presentation to web developers, so that they can appreciate that person's perspective
  • Train web developers in the issues and techniques
  • 我需要符合可访问性标准ncluding it in performance reviews of staff. Many times, apathy and resistance are overcome as they learn more about accessibility

高营业额

组织如何在网站上保持一致的“外观”,更不用说网站管理员来持续几年,甚至每隔几个月时保持高水平的可访问性?教育和政府实体尤其严重受到其网络开发人员的高营业率。许多次,学生或实习生开发了该网站,然后他们毕业或转向更有利可图的工作。多年来,Web开发周期几乎没有像这样的情况下几乎没有连续性。

潜在的解决方案:

  • Provide incentives for web developers to stay, including competitive salaries and benefits.
  • Consider consolidating web development responsibilities across organizations, so that the organization can eliminate one or more of the other positions and raise the salary of the main web developer position.

其他

Your organization may have a unique set of challenges not represented in the above list. Have the committee identify these challenges and their potential solutions. This will allow the committee to begin to implement the appropriate solutions.